Last of the apples?

How sad am I?   Learning the authentic names of our “heritage” apples was rather thrilling!

Thanks to Chris Bird of Sparsholt Horticultural college (near Winchester), we learned that apple trees over 50 years old are deemed heritage.   Ours are remnants of a Victorian orchard that pre-dates the 1890s house by at least 20 years.

Many modern apple varieties are often self-fertile whereas older ones tend to fall into one of four different pollination groups.   With the help of bees and other insects, they will cross-pollinate with other trees in the adjacent group so the most popular trees were those in group 3: able to pollinate with both 2 and 4 which explains why many orchards were a mix of trees.

The College is undertaking a major research project (DNA and all) into such trees in Hampshire and the Isle of Wight.   Rather than somewhat boring Golden Delicious, our yellow apples, each with one or two ridges from stalk to top, are much older Emneth Early culinary (cooking) apples.   The other cookers are more esoteric than the usual Bramley: Victorian Lord Grosvenor and Lord Derby varieties.   The Cox’s Orange Pippin was highly commended for great colour although our fruit was sadly subject to “bitter pit” due to not enough water or calcium!   We even sneaked in a couple given to us by French friends in Normandy: Ashmead’s Kernel and Lord Lambourne look-alikes.

He gave tips for pruning: cut out dead, disease, damaged and crossing/congested once the leaves have fallen from full-size trees.   You don’t need to worry about cavities but might prune to reduce the weight and risk of breaks.   Even fallen apple trees are able to regenerate as they send up new growth.

Seaweed is excellent nutrition for apple trees and is applied around the “drip-line” (below the outer edge of the branches as the root structure mirrors the tree shape) twice a year just after the leaves have dropped and just before they bud again.   Sticky bands are good for winter moth whereas pheromone traps sort out the male coddling moths.

Apples are best stored at about 3-5C, don’t need wrapping in paper and should be stalk down.   I need to revisit my mushroom trays in the shed and get them the other way up.

I learned lots about old, big apple trees but he had tips galore for those dwarf patio trees, espalier and more.

Meanwhile, I’m still getting the odd windfall and made this quick apple sponge:

50g butter.

1 tablespoon honey.

3 firm eating apples, cored and sliced.

3 cooking apples, peeled, cored and sliced.

3 eggs.

same weight butter.

same weight honey or sugar.

same weight self-raising flour.

1 teaspoon vanilla extract.

 

Generously smear the sides and bottom of a 9-inch silicone mould with butter and add a tablespoon of honey.

Layer the eating apples around the base and top with any remaining pieces of the butter.

Layer with the cooking apple slices, retaining about eight slices.

Whisk the butter and honey until light and fluffy.

Whisk in each egg separately with a teaspoon of flour and then fold in the remaining flour and vanilla extract.

Pour the mix on the top of the apples, thumping the whole cake mould on the work surface a few times so the mix settles amongst some of the apple.

Decorate the top with the remaining slices of apple.

Place on a pre-heated tray at 180C, Gas 4 for 30 minutes.

Cover with a double layer of foil and cook for another 20 minutes.

Switch off the oven and let the cake continue to firm as it cools.

Turn-out upside-down on a plate once cool.

 

Free on-line Christmas pudding cooking demo – laugh as blind cook struggles to cover the puds:

https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/190904710127

 

 

 

 

 

 

A breath of French air

I only just survived the traumas of a quick trip to France which was complicated by the tail end of the Covid tests.

We went fully equipped with £270 of test equipment as required by the Government and sold by the travel company.  Diligently, I had sticks pushed down my throat and stuck up my nose, scans taken and uploads repeatedly attempted.  Absolutely no luck as the recipient website refused to accept all data as did the official at the ferry terminal a day later.

It was late at night and we had no choice but to find an emergency hotel: rooms so small that they were called cabins and I could touch multiple walls without moving so no chance of getting lost.  But we were hugely thankful to get a bed for the night, an immensely helpful French pharmacist who resolved the tests in a trice (and at less than a quarter of the price) and were gleefully admitted to the hallowed ground of the ferry queue.

Even better, the daytime sailing allowed a little recreational shopping before all the facilities on board, including the café, closed.  Even better luck in Portsmouth: I was concerned that we might have exceeded our wine allocation and so was ready, receipts and purse in hand, to satisfy the duty Customs officers.  But nary one in sight – we were simply pushed through the Exit.

The roads home were less propitious: dark, heavy rain, multiple flashing police lights and a diversion through the nether regions of Paulsgrove and Portchester.

The utter delight of one’s own bed, safe and sound for a long sleep.

This recipe was inspired by another beekeeper who has plied us with his enormous harvest of delicious grapes.  Between this, litres of juice, attempted drying and an experimental  chutney, I hope we have done justice to his crop.

Grape and frangipane tart.

1 sheet bought or home-made puff pastry.

3 eggs, beaten.

150g honey.

150g butter.

1 teaspoon almond extract.

150g ground almonds.

500g grapes, picked and washed.

Cover the base and sides of a loose-bottomed tart tin with the pastry, prick with a fork and tightly cover bottom and sides with a sheet of foil.

Cook in a preheated oven 180C, Gas 4 for about 14-15 minutes.

Remove the foil and brush the base and sides with some of the beaten egg.

Return to the oven for a further 3-5 minutes.

Rebrush the base with a little more egg while still hot.

Leave to cool.

Beat the honey, butter and almond extract together until light and fluffy.

Add the remaining beaten eggs a little at a time with some of the ground almonds, beating until fluffy.

Fold in the remaining ground almonds.

Place a layer of grapes on the base of the tart.

Cover with the frangipane filling.

Press any remaining grapes into the frangipane.

Cook for 30 minutes then cover with a piece of foil for a further 10 minutes.

 

Winter warmer: tarragon chicken

Want something to cheer up a wet miserable morning?

Sign up for a free on-line cookery demonstration on Monday 11 October at 1030 at:

Eventbrite link:

https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/winter-warmer-baking-session-with-penny-for-visually-impaired-people-tickets-171094306677

 

You can cook along with us or just sit back and enjoy the fun.

This is a perfect dish to cook ahead: simple; one pan so not much washing up; freezes well; good for colder weather.

All you need is:

3 onions peeled and diced

5 cloves garlic, peeled and finely chopped

1 tablespoon olive oil

1 knob butter

10 (1kg) chicken thighs, skinned

1 large glass dry white wine

1 lemon, zest and juice.

2 chicken stock cubes

1 tablespoon fresh French tarragon leaves, chopped

3 heaped teaspoons cornflour

Salt and pepper to taste.

A large lidded pan that can be used on the stove top and in the oven – I use a cast-iron pan.

 

Next time in November, we will be making Christmas puddings.   If you get the chance, start soaking the raisins, currants and sultanas in some brandy, port or sherry.   Details to follow.

 

 

 

Last of the tomato glut

The joys of dealing with Government civil servants: they knew that I use a screen reader but still wanted to send me documents in large print!   I’d be more empathetic to their ignorance if they weren’t under a legal responsibility to make their services accessible.   If they don’t understand the basics as part of their professional skills base, what hope is there?

But, in case you too are befuddled by some of the adaptive technology speak, here’s a little crib:

Braille: used by some visually impaired people; often those who have had limited sight since an early age; learning Braille after about age 50 is difficult due to reduced fingertip sensitivity; many Braille users may also use other forms of IT accessibility; they may “print” Braille on special printers and may have electronic Braille readers.

Large print: some may require documents in different sizes (I used to use 36-point font in Bold; many will use other IT accessibility methods; many will adjust the size of an electronic document to print the appropriate size if they need a hard copy.

Screen magnification: various features enable the text, cursors and other features displayed on the screen to be enlarged; often this means that individuals cannot see the whole screen at one time (avoid material that is on the right); they may also print in large text.

Screen readers: people like me can only access documents independently that are provided electronically and formats other than Word may be inaccessible with their particular screen reader software; pdf documents are often inaccessible; tables ditto; images and logos are inaccessible; punctuation needs to be immaculate especially at the end of headings and in lists or all the words are read as a long sentence; documents don’t need to be in any different size font; Excel spreadsheets are highly risky; form completion can be impossible.

Hope that this little taster is useful –it doesn’t attempt to cover speech recognition and more.   Accessibility of electronic information varies between different software as some is free with such as Microsoft and Apple whereas other costly software is specifically created for disabled people.

Now for something much more fun and positive: immeasurably precious after months of nurturing, the last tomatoes are ripening and I wanted to make the best of those that had split or gone a little soft.   A pasta sauce was the answer:

1 large onion, peeled and finely chopped.

4 carrots, peeled and finely chopped.

2 sticks celery, peeled and finely chopped.

3-4 cloves garlic, peeled and finely chopped.

10 pieces dried tomato, finely chopped.

tablespoon each of thyme, rosemary and tarragon leaves, chopped.

teaspoon ground black pepper.

3 tablespoons olive oil.

750-1000g ripe tomatoes, roughly chopped.

large pinch of salt.

tablespoon basil leaves, torn.

 

Sauté the onion, carrots, celery and herbs in the oil over a gentle heat for about an hour.

Add the tomatoes and salt and continue to gently cook,

Add the basil and any other fresh herbs to hand and continue to cook for about 30 minutes.

Serve with cooked pasta, topped with freshly grated parmesan cheese, chopped black olives or the garnish of your choice.

My Tips:

The key to this sauce is the slow cooking.   I used a heat diffuser over the lowest gas flame possible and let it splutter away for at least two hours.   With the lid on, the vegetables reduced to about a quarter of their size before the tomatoes were added.   It took no effort after the initial chopping other than to stir occasionally and check nothing was sticking.

Delicious, robust and full of fresh goodness that celebrates tomatoes.

 

The next on-line cooking demo is at 1030 on 11 October.  Please do join in.  The links are:

Eventbrite link:

https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/winter-warmer-baking-session-with-penny-for-visually-impaired-people-tickets-171094306677

Facebook Link:

https://www.facebook.com/events/1073961713195536

 

 

 

 

London Pride

Staggering: the value of vulgarly ostentatious cars littering the streets in the capital.   Totally alien for we country mice.

Here we are: moving sluggishly towards better environmental living while some are still strutting their stuff: ridiculous personalised number plates; boorishly huge cars; speed capacities that can never be legal on UK roads.   It probably seems a bit sexist to guess that most of the drivers/owners are men but who else needs to constantly primp and preen their alleged prowess with something as culturally obsolete as a big fast car?   Though there were some women who flaunted names on their plates.   Too many with too little self-confidence.

Amazing what was on show during 12 hours in London and on the road. Some of them seem an alien race.

Back in the simplicity of home, the preserving goes on: more dried plums, tomatoes and apples; more grape juice; experimental grape jelly; outstanding homemade Christmas mincemeat with our own apples and honey.

The high spot has been making Karen’s Mum’s marmalade cake with a jar of homemade from Liz and then, of course, changing it a bit.   This is a very unusual mix with water, not much butter and the marmalade.   On the other hand, I made the whole thing in a saucepan and cooked it in a silicone loaf mould so not much washing up!

 

250ml water

220g sultanas (previously soaked in some alcohol if possible)

50g butter

220g orange marmalade.

150g sugar

3 eggs, beaten until fluffy.

300g self-raising flour.

Pinch salt.

 

Put the water, sultanas, butter and marmalade into a medium sized saucepan and bring to the boil.

Remove from the heat, stir in the sugar and leave to cool.

Mix in the eggs and then fold in the flour and salt.

Place in a silicone loaf mould and cook in a preheated oven 180C, Gas 4 for 45 minutes.

Reduce the heat to 165C, Gas 3, cover with a double layer of foil and cook for up to a further 60 minutes.

Check that the cake has reached about 95C or a skewer comes out clean before removing from oven to cool and turn out.

 

This cake was still moist a week later and had a subtle orange flavour – the sultanas sank a bit but nothing’s perfect!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summer Garden Party

 

Thanks to the Not Forgotten Association for organising a lunchtime musical entertainment at the Grange, near Arlesford in Hampshire, this week.

Amidst the singalong sessions, the high spots were: The venerable gentlemen of the Glen Miller Tribute Band, complete with huge American flags; the ladies of a certain age from a care home winning their champagne prize for distinctive pink wigs – definitely the Best Dressed; the owner of the striking 5 litre Audi v10 car who opened his rear engine compartment to show everyone his parts; the stream of volunteers from the military and business who’d given up their time to assist – even sprays of water in the hot September sun.   There was no doubt that songs over 50 years old got the best reception but nothing stopped the mature jivers strutting their stuff.

Lord Ashburton told us a little about the Grange’s history: originally a simple brick building, an ambitious owner centuries ago had commissioned the National Gallery architect to create something more splendid.   The result was a new-build: large and impressive with striking Doric portico.   Not to be outdone, a subsequent owner had added a flashy Ionic portico at the other end (in front of the old orangery).   Nowadays, the orangery has been replaced with a new building hosting opera and other events while the house is too dilapidated for occupation and has passed into the grasp of English Heritage.

At our more humble home, apples are still thumping off the trees.   Homemade Christmas mincemeat is one solution for using about a pound of peeled, cored and chopped fruit.   I’ll be doing an on-line demonstration of this at 1030 on Monday 13 September – sign up for a free ticket: https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/167476539839

If you have any problems, one of the Open Sight staff can help with registering: 02380 646 378

This week we have also been managing a glut of tomatoes and decided to dry them.   The result is not quite the authentic “sun-blushed” type but will be good to bring the taste of summer into winter dishes.

Many people simply place dried tomatoes in jars covered with olive oil.   I was trying an extra step by using heat to both expel all air from the jar and avoid botulism.   I’m told that the bug is killed at 85C for 5 minutes.   I gave the jar 30 minutes at a degree higher to allow the temperature to fully penetrate the contents.   If I’m dead next year, you’ll know it didn’t work!

 

ripe tomatoes.

sea salt and ground black pepper.

a little vinegar (optional).

olive oil.

 

Halve or quarter the tomatoes and dip the cut sides in a mix of the salt and pepper.

Place on racks in a dehydrator or on parchment paper lined trays in the oven (150C, Gas 2).

Keep drying until they feel leathery.

Place in a jar or airtight container for 24 hours to “condition “.   The degree of driedness equals out between the tomato pieces.

If using, briefly dip in vinegar to offset the tomato sweetness with a little acidity.

Pack in a jar with a silicone ring and metal clip, topping up with oil.

Place the clipped closed jar in a sous-vide waterbath or saucepan and bring the temperature to 86C for 30 minutes.

Remove and cool in cold water.

Christmas preparations

 

The apple harvest always heralds the start of Christmas as I make the incredibly simple seasonal mincemeat with home-grown fruit.

I’ll be demonstrating this and other apple basics on Monday 13 September at 1030.   You can sign up for a free ticket at:

https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/167476539839

If you have any problems, one of the Open Sight staff can help with registering: 02380 646 378

This week, I’ve been experimenting with honey cake.   I think that the last effort was in San Francisco using the recipe of Steve Edwards, winner of Professional Masterchef.   This weekend, at a gathering of local beekeepers, I learned about their “Hampshire honey cake” https://drive.google.com/file/d/1a3vl4wLeIcanNKMusmMAU0ph5SNCb0T2/view?usp=drive_open
I confess, having checked it out, I wouldn’t waste the ingredients.   One of the issues with using honey instead of sugar is that it contains about 17% water (23% for heather honey) which can make a much wetter mix.   One way to offset the water is to add more flour whereas my alternative here is to use some gentle heat to try to persuade the dry fruit to absorb the liquid.   The honey-soaked sultanas, even when coated with flour, still had a tendency to sink but I was too mean with the honey to rinse them.   The orange zest is just to offset the sweetness.   Using a ring mould means that the heat can get to the centre of the cake more easily but the wetter mix still needs longer cooking time to reach the cooked temperature – I prefer something over 95C (in this case, 98C).

And cooking with warm honey, sticky fruit and wobbly cake moulds is particularly testing when you can’t see!   Lots more cleaning up.

 

175g sultanas.

475g honey.

250G butter (one pack).

4 eggs.

250g self-raising flour.

zest of one orange.

 

Place the honey and sultanas in a pan and heat until warm (still comfortable for a finger).   Cover and leave to cool and the sultanas to absorb water from the honey (overnight) – repeat the following day.

On day three, gently reheat the honey until warm enough to drain the honey into the mixing bowl.   Allow to cool.

Whisk the butter into the honey until light and fluffy.

Whisk in the eggs, one at a time.

Fold in most of the flour, leaving a tablespoon or two to mix in with the sultanas.

Fold in the sultanas, coated with flour and the orange zest.

Place the mix in a lightly buttered and floured silicone ring mould.

Cook in a preheated oven at 180C, Gas 4 for 20 minutes before turning in the oven.

Cook for a further 20 minutes, covering loosely with foil if the top is getting too brown.

Allow to cool before turning out.

Next time, I might ignore the sultanas, add 100g chopped walnuts with the flour and top the cooked cake with a warmed honey glaze and walnut halves dry-roasted in a pan with a little honey added to make them sticky at the end!

 

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Harvest exhaustion

Up to our ears in it all.   The honey is progressing through the conditioning into jars and we have even experimented with putting some into bag-in-boxes.   Should be good for ensuring the honey is stored in the dark and easier for me to dispense into recipe mixes using the tap.

But now we are getting overwhelmed with windfalls.   Luckily, another beekeeper produced five large punnets of blackberries so now there are bottles of our own bramble juice (just the apple and berries steamed to release their juices) that should keep for at least a year.   It will be delicious hot with a spoonful of honey and a pinch of cinnamon in the winter months.   And there’s another huge bucket of grapes: more delicious juice.

Alongside, I’ve started Christmas preparations: raisins, currant and sultanas for cakes, puddings and seasonal mincemeat all weighed out and steeping in brandy.

It sounds very domestic and the major challenge is where to store all the preserved produce when there’s lots more to come.   We are starting to view each cupboard longingly and wonder where we can relocate the existing contents.   But it is so satisfying to make the very best of what has been carefully nurtured and grown.

Did you know?   According to the Daily Telegraph, if a domestic TV Licence is in the name of a blind person, they are entitled to it at half price.

Something much simpler, easy and needs no attention: courtesy of Heston, this is my standard roast chicken recipe.   It just needs short preparation and time to cook.

 

1 litre warm water.

60g salt.

1 fresh chicken, any trussing removed.

1 lemon, juice and zest.

freshly chopped herbs of your choice.

1 or 2 cloves garlic, peeled and chopped (optional).

salt and pepper.

55g butter.

a large glass of white wine.

 

Dissolve the salt in the warm water and allow to cool.

Place the chicken in the water, cover and refrigerate overnight.

Mix the lemon juice and zest, herbs, garlic (if using), seasoning and butter to make a paste.

Drain the chicken and push the paste between the skin and breast meat.

Push the left-over lemon halves and any spare herbs into the chicken cavity.

Place the chicken in a roasting pan, season and add the wine.

Cook in a preheated oven at 95C, Gas Slow or a quarter for 180-210 minutes or until the thickest part of the thigh has reached 70C.

Remove from the oven and cover with foil and a kitchen towel to keep warm and rest for an hour (while you roast potatoes).

Return to the oven at the highest temperature possible for 5-10 minutes to brown the skin.

Serve and enjoy – wonderfully moist, excellent cold and always a winner.

 

 

 

Honey plus a workhorse of a tart

Life is picking up pace after the leisurely months of lock-down.   This week has included the monthly Open Sight cooking session https://youtu.be/jRIznF2wFAY plus our first substantial harvest of honey.

The dribbles extracted late last summer and earlier this Spring were simply the overtures to the symphony of delectable stickiness that pervaded every surface.   The whole process had been pre-scripted and thought-through: honeycomb frames from the hives; removing the wax cell cappings; extracting honey in a sort of handraulic spin-dryer; filtering out odd bee legs, pollen and dust.  Of course, the best laid plans and all that went awry, and every surface was sticky.   Thank goodness for the vinegar advice following a recent icing sugar disaster: a couple of capfuls into the bucket for the fourth attempt to wash the floor worked.

Now we have a tank of glorious golden honey that has been settling for a couple of days.   It is good enough to eat now but conditioning for 30 minutes at 62C will help maintain the runny consistency.   The fabulous sous-vide water-bath is in action again.   It is proving invaluable for basic cooking, making yoghurt and, now, getting the honey ready for jars.   More of this saga next time.

Meanwhile, this is the savoury tart we blind cooks made together on-line recently.   It has endless uses and combinations.   I’ve slightly adapted the pastry from versions I learned in San Francisco and from the blessed Delia.   It has my special methods for baking that suit a blind cook or anyone else.

 

110g butter, frozen, grated and re-frozen.

220g plain flour, chilled in the fridge overnight.

1 teaspoon salt.

1 egg.

a little cold water.

 

4 leeks, finely sliced and washed.

4 eggs, beaten.

2 heaped tablespoons crème fraîche.

Salt and pepper.

 

(To prepare the butter: freeze the block then coarsely grate before placing in a bag or box and re-freezing.)

Mix the frozen butter into the chilled flour and salt, breaking down the butter to about the size of a grain of rice.

Beat the egg in about the same volume of water and gradually mix into the flour mix, adding a little more water, until the pastry comes together.

Chill the pastry for at least 30 minutes.

Roll out the pastry and line a large loose-bottomed tart tin.   Press the pastry into the corners and prick all over with a fork.

Line the pastry-filled tin with kitchen foil, pressing down in the corners and covering the edges.

Chill for 30 minutes.

Bake at 180C, Gas 4 for 12 minutes – this is “baking blind”.

Break the eggs for the filling into a bowl and beat.

Remove the foil, brush the base and internal sides of the pastry with some of the beaten egg and return to the oven for another 3 minutes.

Remove the pastry case and brush again with beaten egg.   Ideally, allow to cool and rest for an hour.

Meanwhile, cook the leeks in the microwave until soft and allow to cool.

Beat the crème fraîche and seasoning into the eggs.

Squeeze as much liquid as possible from the leeks and place in tart

Place the whole tart tin on a large piece of kitchen foil.

Fill the tart with the egg mixture.

Fold the foil over the tart to make a loose tent and bake for at least 40 minutes until the centre is just setting.   The foil catches any spills and protects the pastry from getting overcooked.

Allow to cool a little before serving warm.

 

This seems a long recipe but keeping some frozen and/or grated butter ready in the freezer makes it simple.   I also make the pastry and freeze it for using later and even freeze the pre-cooked tart cases too.   A little time on this preparation makes the final stages quick and easy.

There is no end to the fillings with the savoury custard but most need to be at least part-cooked e.g.   mushrooms with the leeks; smoked salmon or trout with chopped dill and a spoonful of horseradish sauce; asparagus and chopped ham; courgettes, sun-dried tomatoes, garlic, black olives.

The pastry case has other potential: fill with cooked apple puree, top with slices of eating apple plus a dusting of sugar and butter knobs before returning to the oven for about 20 minutes.

 

 

 

 

 

August windfalls

Local fellow beekeeper, Peter, turned up with a bucket of his grapes.   Each one had been individually hand-picked and, although some were instantly consumed, the rest wasn’t going to last long.   They went into the Scandinavian steamer which is, bottom to top: hot water tank to produce the steam; juice reservoir with natty tube for decanting into bottles; large container for raw fruit; lid.   The steam comes up through the middle, heats the fruit cells until they burst whereupon the juice drips down into the reservoir where it is heated by the water.   The result: virtually pasteurised fruit juice that will last a year.

His bucket made 15 bottles of precious homemade grape juice and then we topped up the fruit with windfall apples.   It’s steaming away to make apple and grape juice for homemade granola, and we can hardly keep up with the apples dropping from the trees!

The blustery winds and sharp showers brought down even more apples from the exceedingly venerable fruit trees.   They are probably at least 130 years old and a good mix of eating and cooking varieties.   This very moist apple cake is ideal for using any of the windfalls.

 

340g self-raising flour.

1 rounded teaspoon baking powder.

1 teaspoon salt.

340g soft brown sugar.

170g butter, cubed.

100g dates, chopped.

30g walnuts, shelled and chopped.

650g prepared mixed apples, peeled, cored and roughly chopped.

4 eggs, beaten.

1 teaspoon vanilla bean paste.

 

Spray a silicon ring mould with oil and dust with flour.

Rub the butter into the dry ingredients.

Add the dates, walnut pieces and chopped apples and mix so that the apple is well covered with flour.

Beat the vanilla with the eggs and gradually stir into the mix.

Stir thoroughly then place in cake mould.

Bake in pre-heated oven at 165C, Gas 3 for 90 -120 minutes, covering with a double layer of foil with a steam hole after 60 minutes.

Allow to cool before turning out.

 

I like my cakes to reach an internal temperature of at least 95C.   The quantity of cold, wet apple means that this cake takes a longer time than expected to bake.

Mixing by hand is a good way to feel how well everything is combined before placing handfuls in the mould.   Messy but I’m easy to clean afterwards.

A ring mould allows the heat to reach the middle of the cake but you could halve the ingredients and cook in a loaf tin lined with parchment paper.

My next experiment is to replace the sugar with honey – not sure what proportions will work.